Quantum1Net: The Why, The How, The What! Part #12
Just like Bitcoins which are numbers on a Blockchain. QCoins are numbers on a Blockchain.
The difference between QCoin and Bitcoin is based on that the Work used in the Proof-of-Work instead of being based on CPU cycles, as with Bitcoin, uses data transfers, so Work is calculated from the actual work a node contributes to the network, and not just any Work.
Additional difference is signing of transactions @&blocks and security.
The QCoin consensus works on micro and macro levels so that transactions done in New York, do not need to travel around the world but can be verified in New York, or in any other network-location that contains enough nodes.
It works by using a pseudo-random function to nominate a signing group of nodes in the area the transaction is done and then entered in to the global chain, if the area the transaction is done in don’t cointain enough nodes, then nodes are global assigned.
Security is one of the major differences, the design of QCoin started with Quantum Computer Enhanced Hacking in mind, so the security is all about being Quantum Safe and that is achieved by using Quantum Resistant encryption and using one-time-keys.
Hacking affects blockchain in 4 major areas
3. Historical chain
4. Extract Private key Seed from Public Key
There is a huge difference between the First Gen Cryptos and Second Gen,
Gen One [BitCoin, LightCoin, BitCoin Cash, BitCoin Gold …]
Gen Two [Ethereum, Waves, NEO, Tezos ….],
when it comes to security, this due to the fact that the first generation blockchains have the account states hardcoded in the transactions as opposed to the second generation where account states are calculated by the node processing the blocks.
On mining both Gen 1 and Gen 2 have similar problems, that finding the correct nonce is a lot easier for a Quantum Computer then it is for a Binary Computer[http://fortune.com/2018/01/06/breaking-bitcoin-cybersaturday/]
There would be a need to implement a Quantum Safe Block Signature like the XMSS (https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/rfc8391).
On Transactions, we have “the first node that you send the transaction to can replace the change address with whatever they want, recover the private key from your public key, and forge your signature.”[https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/bitcoin-is-not-quantum-safe-and-how-we-can-fix-1375242150/]
Most Gen Two Chains can change to a one-time key function without a need to move everything into a new chain, however for the Gen One chains it is not that simple and the chains will need to be hard forked.
The historical chain should be safe as it has been spread to enough nodes to be secure. 51% attack should not make a difference with a Quantum Computer or not.
But still a problem that Yggrdasill solves by micro and macro signing and pseudo-random assignment of nodes.
The ability of quantum computers to extract private keys from public keys
is a huge problem.
- The Yggdrasill blockchain uses XMSS as block signature
- XMSS makes the historical chain secure, and the built in sharding with oracle nodes, will make it possible to add additional security on the historical chain, as needed
- Extract private keys is solved by One-Time-Keys